Photovoltaic panels: oriental in this way and save a lot, seriously

There are many important aspects about photovoltaic panels and how to get the most out of them based on how to direct them: details to follow

When it comes to photovoltaic panels, there are various aspects that arouse attention also regarding how to direct them, and this to optimize their yield and get the most out of it.

solar panels how to direct them
Information Today

The best of solar panel arrangements is true southwith a inclination that it is equal to latitude. The correct estimate of the orientation and inclination of the same can be an aspect capable of influencing the relative yield quite a bit.

It is not an easy operation, the definition of these variables, and this since during the day, how much the rays affect varies depending on the position of the sun. A useful tool capable of facilitating everything, he explains in the related study Biblus-net, it concerns the choice of relying on a photovoltaic software.

The latter will provide valuable support on the panels photovoltaics and about how to orient them. Taking into account geographical data, and the period where there is the greatest need for energy.

The angle of orientation is the degree of elevation

About the observers sympathetic to the planet, the sun goes from east to west, through a parabolic trajectory. In order to define the direction of the sun’s rays with respect to the surface of the system, it is necessary to dwell on two corners.

It deals with of the azimuth he was born in tilt. In the first case, reference is made to the orientation angle of the plane of the instrument with respect to the corresponding meridian. Basically, the latter goes to measure it deviation of the plane with respect to the orientation in a southerly direction. And that about the sites – northern hemisphere. Northbound instead for those in the southern hemisphere.

Positive values ​​with respect to the Azimuth angle indicate an orientation in the west direction. The negative ones, eastbound, are explained. (CEI EN 611194).

Since the angle increases as the clockwise rotation of the vector increases, this means that when Azimuth is 0°, the direction it is aimed at is south.

In the case of 90° azimuth, the instrument faces in the direction West, while in the case of 180°, towards North.

When referring to tilt, means the degree of elevation, the inclination of the objects with respect to the ground plane, or the angle of the same. As far as the photovoltaic system is concerned, the tilt is linked to the inclination of the plane of the instrument with respect to the horizontal one. (IEC/TS 61836).

Photovoltaic panels how to orient them to make them perform at their best

As mentioned, there are many interesting aspects that are linked to the topic, such as in the case of MARTHA, an important project concerning intelligent photovoltaics: here’s what you need to know about it, here.

But returning to the topic, the aspect that binds to the most energy efficiency of the panels it’s not just about quality. Other factors that affect are the orientation And the inclination of the same.

Compared to productivity, the maximum peak reached is when the sun’s rays are perpendicular to the panels. This is a condition that cannot be perpetual but is subject to vary during the day and according to the seasons.

To get the most out of the system, there is therefore a need for orient them towards the direction where the incidence of the rays is highest. As well as do the estimation of the solar draft, direction of the solar panels and about the inclination of the photovoltaic panels.

Photovoltaic panels how to orientate them, solar radiation and solar maps

A first aspect subject to calculation for the purpose of site control, in relation to understanding whether there is adequacy to proceed with installing the system, concerns the estimate of how much solar energy reaches that place.

Over the course of the year, the sun changes its paths across the planet’s surface. There is no constancy about the radiation from the sun that comes to the planet. Therefore, the energy of the star cannot be programmed and used when needed, as in the case of the night.

However, you need to know that to understand the value of the element in question, average, in a specific location, on solar maps the paths of the sun are shown. The organization takes place through polar or Cartesian coordinates.

Solar charts – polar coordinates

With reference to the former, it is about graphs where the celestial vault is projected and reduced to a horizontal plane. Such diagrams they are made by concentric circles. From the outside towards and up to the centre, the various values ​​of the solar height.

Starting from the center then there are rays that intersect the various circumferences, taking into account the various periods of the year. And again, going to identify the various azimuth values.

Also, the paths of the sun in the various months are reported.

Solar maps – Cartesian coordinates

Compared to those in Cartesian coordinatesthese are diagrams where the celestial vault is projected as if it were the surface of a cylinder projected onto a plane.

In this way we have the cardinal points with respect to the extremes. About the reference center, the South, where the panels are to be oriented. The highest curve is the path of the sun during the summer period. The minor one concerns the winter solstice. On the sides of the order, the values ​​of elevations.

Biblus-net explains that for the purpose of producing such maps reference can be made to photovoltaic software. Through the latter you can project your own photovoltaic shading on the sun diagram. And go check how much energy from the sun compared to a specific time of year.

Isoradiative curves

On the general theme ofsolar panels and as oriental, a further graphical representation aimed at understanding how much energy projected there is a specific place refers to isoradiative curves.

That is, the representation on curved lines of the radiation from the sun that affects a specific location. The latter change from latitude. The lower the latitude, the more it will affect. And this since the sun arrives in a more orthogonal way with respect to the capturing surface.

By means of tables and abacuses it is possible to obtain the radiation values. Reporting the energy estimate with respect to the horizontal plane according to the latitude of the site. Based on the data (UNI 10349 standard [UNI 8477]. And according to historical data.

Also in this case of utility turns out to be the photovoltaic software through which you will have access to the different data depending on the place of installation.

Photovoltaic panels, how to orient them: the direction

The productivity of the plant it is greater when the rays are perpendicular to the panels. The orientation to be preferred is towards the direction south, angle azimuth 0°.

If there is no way to install it in a southerly direction, or in the eventual presence of obstacles that would generate shading, there is a way to vary its orientation.

With maximum orientation of 45° South-East and South-West. In this case there would be an overall contained decrease in annual production, 1-3 percent.

The moment the orientation has an angle greater than 45° with respect to the South, in this case the production aspect would start to decline significantly remarkable.

There radiation tied to a panel exposed to East is less significant. Even more so in the case of exposure to the West. He would only get morning or evening coffee.

Photovoltaic panels, how to orient them: the inclination

An influencing aspect the optimal inclination of the panels and the latitude of the place where they are installed.

Biblus-net, regarding the optimal inclination, he explains that approximately the maximum production per year, this is equal to Latitude L of the site where chosen to install them.

In the case of a latitude of 40°, the installation of the panel takes place with an inclination between thirty and forty°.

In order to better understand the correct inclination of the instrument, it is also necessary to take into account the surface on which you will be installing.

In the case of installing on roof covering, the panels will be installed in a coplanar way with the pitch of the roof. In the case of installation on the ground or above one flat roof other than the roof, here’s what it takes.

First of all make the precise calculation of the inclination, in this way going to avoid that the panels placed in front do not cause, in certain periods of the year, shading on those located on the rear row.

The photovoltaic software may be the right choice for the precise calculation of the minimum installation distance of the rows. And as well as with respect to the right inclination.

What are solar trackers and how do they work?

The correct orientation of the panels is essential to get the most out of the system. In order to optimize the solar disposition throughout the year, there is a way to proceed with the installation of certain devices electronic in nature. These are elements that make it possible to follow the trajectory of the sun.

Biblusnet explains that, in this regard, reference is made to the solar trackers. These are specific devices that allow the movement and rotation of the panel so that there is always an orientation towards the solar direction. So we talk about floating panel.

Uniaxial – biaxial and other aspects

These solar trackers allow you to always keep the 90° inclination between the panel and the beams. This optimizes energy efficiency. There are various types and based on this element the mechanism by which they work changes.

The main ones, therefore with regard to solar trackers, are “uniaxial” and “biaxial”. In the first case, these devices ‘chase’ the radiation, so to speak. By rotation around its own axis. Depending on their orientation, they can be classified in various ways.

Tilt, roll, azimuth, and polar axis trackers.

The solar trackers uniaxial they “chase” solar radiation by rotating around their axis and, based on their orientation, they can be classified into:

As for i “biaxial”, have two axes of rotation perpendicular to each other. These allow, through an electrical system, the perfect pointing of the panels towards the sun.

Based on their orientation, they can be divided into trackers of azimuth-elevation, and tilt-roll.

Active and passive

And then, depending on the type of system that allows them to move in order to orient themselves in the direction of the sun, they can be classified into active and passive.

In the first case, these are elements composed of electric motors which allow the panels to move slowly. The relative subdivision concerns those analog and digital.

In the case of those passive, they employ autonomous physical phenomena, regardless of the position of the sun with respect to the panels.

In order to optimally define the orientation of the panels, if it were a system without a solar tracking system, Biblusnet recommends the free trial of the photovoltaic software.

Going to insert place of installation, values azimuth And tilt, it will be possible to collect data on the average daily irradiation per month. And again, have an overview of the analysis of the performance of the panels.

These are some details generals and not in-depth about the photovoltaic panels and how to direct them. Either way it is well and appropriate elaborate on and inquire about to know more. As well as to clarify any doubts. Turning to experts in the field and subjects competent in the matter.

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Photovoltaic panels: oriental in this way and save a lot, seriously

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